Serving existing ECAs, the LNG bunkering infrastructure is currently concentrated in north west Europe (for example, in the ports of Rotterdam, Stockholm and Zeebrugge) and the US Gulf and East coast (including the ports of Jacksonville and Fourchon). These will make up the bunkering nodes around which a global LNG-fuelled shipping industry will be developed (see figure 3). We see signs of this in the growing number of bunkering initiatives. Key Asian ports serving deep-sea shipping routes are in the process of establishing LNG bunkering facilities and looking to co-ordinate activities with their European and North American counterparts. This is most evident in the infrastructure being developed by the world’s busiest bunker port, Singapore and in the activities in ports in eastern China, for example Ningbo-Zhoushan, the world’s biggest cargo port.
GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR LNG BUNKERING
Current EU policy requires at least one LNG bunkering port in each member state. About 10% of European coastal and inland ports will be included, a total of 139 ports. Coastal port LNG infrastructure will be completed by 2020 and for inland ports by 2025. There are several ports under development in North America, mostly in the south east, the Gulf of Mexico and around the Great Lakes, but also for ferry and deep-sea operations in the Pacific Northwest. China is extending LNG bunkering infrastructure from inland waterways to coastal areas and is expected to be able to service the LNG demand of all vessel types. South Korea offers LNG bunkering in the port of Incheon and is considering a second facility in Busan. Elsewhere in Asia, in addition to Singapore, Japan and Australia are also working to develop LNG bunkering facilities.